Why Buddhism is True: The Science and Philosophy of

buddhism epub true pdf science book philosophy pdf meditation book enlightenment download english pdf edition mobile Why Buddhism book is True mobile is True The Science pdf Buddhism is True book Buddhism is True The Science pdf Why Buddhism is True The Science and Philosophy of Meditation and Enlightenment eBookIne purchase But the thrill always fades and it always leaves us wantingThe old Rolling Stones lyric I cant get no satisfaction is according to Buddhism the human condition Indeed though the Buddha is famous for asserting that life is pervaded by suffering some scholars say thats an incomplete rendering of his message and that the word translated as suffering dukkha could for some purposes be translated as unsatisfactoriness So what exactly is the illusory part of pursuing doughnuts or sex or consumer goods or a promotion There are different illusions associated with different pursuits but for now we can focus on one illusion thats common to these things the overestimation of how much happiness theyll bring Again by itself this is delusional only in a subtle sense If I asked you whether you thought that getting that next promotion or getting an A on that next exam or eating that next powdered sugar doughnut would bring you eternal bliss youd say no obviously not On the other hand we do often pursue such things with at the very least an unbalanced view of the future We spendtime envisioning the perks that a promotion will bring than envisioning the headaches it will bring And there may be an unspoken sense that once weve achieved this long sought goal once weve reached the summit well be able to relax or at least things will be enduringly better Similarly when we see that doughnut sitting there we immediately imagine how good it tastes not how intensely well want another doughnut only moments after eating it or how well feel a bit tired or agitated later when the sugar rush subsides Why Pleasure Fades It doesnt take a rocket scientist to explain why this sort of distortion would be built into human anticipation It just takes an evolutionary biologistor for that matter anyone willing to spend a little time thinking about how evolution works Heres the basic logic We were designed by natural selection to do certain things that helped our ancestors get their genes into the next generationthings like eating having sex earning the esteem of other people and outdoing rivals I put designed in uotation marks because again natural selection isnt a conscious intelligent designer but an unconscious process Still natural selection does create organisms that look as if theyre the product of a conscious designer a designer who kept fiddling with them to make them effective gene propagators So as a kind of thought experiment its legitimate to think of natural selection as a designer and put yourself in its shoes and ask If you were designing organisms to be good at spreading their genes how would you get them to pursue the goals that further this cause In other words granted that eating having sex impressing peers and besting rivals helped our ancestors spread their genes how exactly would you design their brains to get them to pursue these goals I submit that at least three basic principles of design would make sense Achieving these goals should bring pleasure since animals including humans tend to pursue things that bring pleasure The pleasure shouldnt last forever After all if the pleasure didnt subside wed never seek it again our first meal would be our last because hunger would never return So too with sex a single act of intercourse and then a lifetime of lying there basking in the afterglow Thats no way to get lots of genes into the next generation The animals brain should focuson the fact that pleasure will accompany the reaching of a goal than on the fact that the pleasure will dissipate shortly thereafter After all if you focus on youll pursue things like food and sex and social status with unalloyed gusto whereas if you focus on you could start feeling ambivalence You might for example start asking what the point is of so fiercely pursuing pleasure if the pleasure will wear off shortly after you get it and leave you hungering forBefore you know it youll be full of ennui and wishing youd majored in philosophy If you put these three principles of design together you get a pretty plausible explanation of the human predicament as diagnosed by the Buddha Yes as he said pleasure is fleeting and yes this leaves us recurrently dissatisfied And the reason is that pleasure is designed by natural selection to evaporate so that the ensuing dissatisfaction will get us to pursuepleasure Natural selection doesnt want us to be happy after all it just wants us to be productive in its narrow sense of productive And the way to make us productive is to make the anticipation of pleasure very strong but the pleasure itself not very long lasting Scientists can watch this logic play out at the biochemical level by observing dopamine a neurotransmitter that is correlated with pleasure and the anticipation of pleasure In one seminal study they took monkeys and monitored dopamine generating neurons as drops of sweet juice fell onto the monkeys tongues Predictably dopamine was released right after the juice touched the tongue But then the monkeys were trained to expect drops of juice after a light turned on As the trials proceededandof the dopamine came when the light turned on and less and less came after the juice hit the tongue We have no way of knowing for sure what it felt like to be one of those monkeys but it would seem that as time passed there wasin the way of anticipating the pleasure that would come from the sweetness yet less in the way of pleasure actually coming from the sweetnessI To translate this conjecture into everyday human terms If you encounter a new kind of pleasureif say youve somehow gone your whole life without eating a powdered sugar doughnut and somebody hands you one and suggests you try ityoull get a big blast of dopamine after the taste of the doughnut sinks in But later once youre a confirmed powdered sugar doughnut eater the lions share of the dopamine spike comes before you actually bite into the doughnut as youre staring longingly at it the amount that comes after the bite is much less than the amount you got after that first blissful bite into a powdered sugar doughnut The pre bite dopamine blast youre now getting is the promise ofbliss and the post bite drop in dopamine is in a way the breaking of the promiseor at least its a kind of biochemical acknowledgment that there was some overpromising To the extent that you bought the promiseanticipated greater pleasure than would be delivered by the consumption itselfyou have been if not deluded in the strong sense of that term at least misled Kind of cruel in a waybut what do you expect from natural selection Its job is to build machines that spread genes and if that means programming some measure of illusion into the machines then illusion there will be Unhelpful Insights So this is one kind of light science can shed on an illusion Call it Darwinian light By looking at things from the point of view of natural selection we see why the illusion would be built into us and we havereason than ever to see that it is an illusion Butand this is the main point of this little digressionthis kind of light is of limited value if your goal is to actually liberate yourself from the illusion Dont believe me Try this simple experiment Reflect on the fact that our lust for doughnuts and other sweet things is a kind of illusionthat the lust implicitly promisesenduring pleasure than will result from succumbing to it while blinding us to the letdown that may ensue As youre reflecting on this fact hold a powdered sugar doughnut six inches from your face Do you feel the lust for it magically weakening Not if youre like me no This is what I discovered after immersing myself in evolutionary psychology knowing the truth about your situation at least in the form that evolutionary psychology provides it doesnt necessarily make your life any better In fact it can actually make it worse Youre still stuck in the natural human cycle of ultimately futile pleasure seekingwhat psychologists sometimes call the hedonic treadmillbut now you have new reason to see the absurdity of it In other words now you see that its a treadmill a treadmill specifically designed to keep you running often without really getting anywhereyet you keep running And powdered sugar doughnuts are just the tip of the iceberg I mean the truth is its not all that uncomfortable to be aware of the Darwinian logic behind your lack of dietary self discipline In fact you may find in this logic a comforting excuse its hard to fight Mother Nature right But evolutionary psychology also made meaware of how illusion shapes other kinds of behavior such as the way I treat other people and the way I in various senses treat myself In these realms Darwinian self consciousness was sometimes very uncomfortable Yongey Mingyur Rinpoche a meditation teacher in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition has said Ultimately happiness comes down to choosing between the discomfort of becoming aware of your mental afflictions and the discomfort of being ruled by them What he meant is that if you want to liberate yourself from the parts of the mind that keep you from realizing true happiness you have to first become aware of them which can be unpleasant Okay fine thats a form of painful self consciousness that would be worthwhilethe kind that leads ultimately to deep happiness But the kind I got from evolutionary psychology was the worst of both worlds the painful self consciousness without the deep happiness I.

☃ Why Buddhism is True: The Science and Philosophy of Meditation and Enlightenment (English Edition) PDF / Epub ✑ Author Robert Wright – Help-buy-essay.co.uk Why Buddhism is True Taking the Red Pill At the risk of overdramatizing the human condition Have you ever seen the movie The Matrix Its about a guy named Neo played by Keanu Reeves who discovers thatWhy Buddhism is True: The Science and Philosophy of Meditation and Enlightenment (English Edition) PDF / Epub Author Robert Wright Help buy essay.co.uk Why Buddhism is True Taking the Red Pill At the risk of overdramatizing the human condition Have you ever seen the movie The Matrix Its about a guy named Neo played by Keanu Reeves who discovers that is True: eBook Why Buddhism is True Taking the Red Pill At the risk of overdramatizing the human condition Have you ever seen the movie The Matrix Its about a guy named Neo played by Keanu Reeves who discovers that hes been inhabiting a Buddhism is True: The Science PDF or dream world The life he thought he was living is actually an elaborate hallucination Hes having that hallucination while unbeknownst to him his actual physical body is inside a gooey coffin size podone among many pods rows and rows of pods each pod containing a human Why Buddhism Epub / being absorbed in a dream These people have been put in their pods by robot overlords and given dream lives as pacifiers The choice faced by Neoto keep living a delusion or wake up to realityis famously captured in the movies red pill scene Neo has been contacted by rebels who have entered his dream or strictly speaking whose avatars have entered his dream Their leader Morpheus played by Laurence Fishburne explains the situation to Neo You are a slave Neo Like everyone else you were born into Buddhism is True: Epub bondage into a prison that you cannot taste or see or toucha prison for your mind The prison is called the Matrix but theres no way to explain to Neo what the Matrix ultimately is The only way to get the whole picture says Morpheus is to see it for yourself He offers Neo two pills a red one and a blue one Neo can take the blue pill and return to his dream world or take the red pill and break through the shroud of delusion Neo Buddhism is True: The Science PDF or chooses the red pill Thats a pretty stark choice a life of delusion and bondage or a life of insight and freedom In fact its a choice so dramatic that youd think a Hollywood movie is exactly where it belongsthat the choices we really get to make about how to live our lives are less momentous than thispedestrian Yet when that movie came out a number of people saw it as mirroring a choice they had actually made The people Im thinking about are what you might call Western Buddhists people in the United States and other Western countries who for the most part didnt grow up Buddhist but at some point adopted Buddhism At least they adopted a version of Buddhism a version that had been stripped of some supernatural elements typically found in Asian Buddhism such as belief in reincarnation and in various deities This Western Buddhism centers on a part of Buddhist practice that in Asia iscommon among monks than among laypeople meditation along with immersion in Buddhist philosophy Two of the most common Western conceptions of Buddhismthat its atheistic and that it revolves around meditationare wrong most Asian Buddhists do believe in gods though not an omnipotent creator God and dont meditate These Western Buddhists long before they watched The Matrix had become convinced that the world as they had once seen it was a kind of illusionnot an out and out hallucination but a seriously warped picture of reality that in turn warped their approach to life with bad conseuences for them and the people around them Now they felt that thanks to meditation and Buddhist philosophy they were seeing thingsclearly Among these people The Matrix seemed an apt allegory of the transition theyd undergone and so became known as a dharma movie The word dharma has several meanings including the Buddhas teachings and the path that Buddhists should tread in response to those teachings In the wake of The Matrix a new shorthand for I follow the dharma came into currency I took the red pill I saw The Matrix in right after it came out and some months later I learned that I had a kind of connection to it The movies directors the Wachowski siblings had given Keanu Reeves three books to read in preparation for playing Neo One of them was a book I had written a few years earlier The Moral Animal Evolutionary Psychology and Everyday Life Im not sure what kind of link the directors saw between my book and The Matrix But I know what kind of link I see Evolutionary psychology can be described in various ways and heres one way I had described it in my book It is the study of how the human brain was designedby natural selectionto mislead us even enslave us Dont get me wrong natural selection has its virtues and Id rather be created by it than not be created at allwhich so far as I can tell are the two options this universe offers Being a product of evolution is by no means entirely a story of enslavement and delusion Our evolved brains empower us in many ways and they often bless us with a basically accurate view of reality Still ultimately natural selection cares about only one thing or I should say caresin uotesabout only one thing since natural selection is just a blind process not a conscious designer And that one thing is getting genes into the next generation Genetically based traits that in the past contributed to genetic proliferation have flourished while traits that didnt have fallen by the wayside And the traits that have survived this test include mental traitsstructures and algorithms that are built into the brain and shape our everyday experience So if you ask the uestion What kinds of perceptions and thoughts and feelings guide us through life each day the answer at the most basic level isnt The kinds of thoughts and feelings and perceptions that give us an accurate picture of reality No at the most basic level the answer is The kinds of thoughts and feelings and perceptions that helped our ancestors get genes into the next generation Whether those thoughts and feelings and perceptions give us a true view of reality is strictly speaking beside the point As a result they sometimes dont Our brains are designed to among other things delude us Not that theres anything wrong with that Some of my happiest moments have come from delusionbelieving for example that the Tooth Fairy would pay me a visit after I lost a tooth But delusion can also produce bad moments And I dont just mean moments that in retrospect are obviously delusional like horrible nightmares I also mean moments that you might not think of as delusional such as lying awake at night with anxiety Or feeling hopeless even depressed for days on end Or feeling bursts of hatred toward people bursts that may actually feel good for a moment but slowly corrode your character Or feeling bursts of hatred toward yourself Or feeling greedy feeling a compulsion to buy things or eat things or drink things well beyond the point where your well being is served Though these feelingsanxiety despair hatred greedarent delusional the way a nightmare is delusional if you examine them closely youll see that they have elements of delusion elements youd be better off without And if you think you would be better off imagine how the whole world would be After all feelings like despair and hatred and greed can foster wars and atrocities So if what Im saying is trueif these basic sources of human suffering and human cruelty are indeed in large part the product of delusionthere is value in exposing this delusion to the light Sounds logical right But heres a problem that I started to appreciate shortly after I wrote my book about evolutionary psychology the exact value of exposing a delusion to the light depends on what kind of light youre talking about Sometimes understanding the ultimate source of your suffering doesnt by itself help very much An Everyday Delusion Lets take a simple but fundamental example eating some junk food feeling briefly satisfied and then only minutes later feeling a kind of crash and maybe a hunger forjunk food This is a good example to start with for two reasons First it illustrates how subtle our delusions can be Theres no point in the course of eating a six pack of small powdered sugar doughnuts when youre believing that youre the messiah or that foreign agents are conspiring to assassinate you And thats true of many sources of delusion that Ill discuss in this book theyreabout illusionabout things not being uite what they seemthan about delusion in thedramatic sense of that word Still by the end of the book Ill have argued that all of these illusions do add up to a very large scale warping of reality a disorientation that is as significant and conseuential as out and out delusion The second reason junk food is a good example to start with is that its fundamental to the Buddhas teachings Okay it cant be literally fundamental to the Buddhas teachings because years ago when the Buddha taught junk food as we know it didnt exist Whats fundamental to the Buddhas teachings is the general dynamic of being powerfully drawn to sensory pleasure that winds up being fleeting at best One of the Buddhas main messages was that the pleasures we seek evaporate uickly and leave us thirsting forWe spend our time looking for the next gratifying thingthe next powdered sugar doughnut the next sexual encounter the next status enhancing promotion the next onl.

Ine purchase But the thrill always fades and it always leaves us wantingThe old Rolling Stones lyric I cant get no satisfaction is according to Buddhism the human condition Indeed though the Buddha is famous for asserting that life is pervaded by suffering some scholars say thats an incomplete rendering of his message and that the word translated as suffering dukkha could for some purposes be translated as unsatisfactoriness So what exactly is the illusory part of pursuing doughnuts or sex or consumer goods or a promotion There are different illusions associated with different pursuits but for now we can focus on one illusion thats common to these things the overestimation of how much happiness theyll bring Again by itself this is delusional only in a subtle sense If I asked you whether you thought that getting that next promotion or getting an A on that next exam or eating that next powdered sugar doughnut would bring you eternal bliss youd say no obviously not On the other hand we do often pursue such things with at the very least an unbalanced view of the future We spendtime envisioning the perks that a promotion will bring than envisioning the headaches it will bring And there may be an unspoken sense that once weve achieved this long sought goal once weve reached the summit well be able to relax or at least things will be enduringly better Similarly when we see that doughnut sitting there we immediately imagine how good it tastes not how intensely well want another doughnut only moments after eating it or how well feel a bit tired or agitated later when the sugar rush subsides Why Pleasure Fades It doesnt take a rocket scientist to explain why this sort of distortion would be built into human anticipation It just takes an evolutionary biologistor for that matter anyone willing to spend a little time thinking about how evolution works Heres the basic logic We were designed by natural selection to do certain things that helped our ancestors get their genes into the next generationthings like eating having sex earning the esteem of other people and outdoing rivals I put designed in uotation marks because again natural selection isnt a conscious intelligent designer but an unconscious process Still natural selection does create organisms that look as if theyre the product of a conscious designer a designer who kept fiddling with them to make them effective gene propagators So as a kind of thought experiment its legitimate to think of natural selection as a designer and put yourself in its shoes and ask If you were designing organisms to be good at spreading their genes how would you get them to pursue the goals that further this cause In other words granted that eating having sex impressing peers and besting rivals helped our ancestors spread their genes how exactly would you design their brains to get them to pursue these goals I submit that at least three basic principles of design would make sense Achieving these goals should bring pleasure since animals including humans tend to pursue things that bring pleasure The pleasure shouldnt last forever After all if the pleasure didnt subside wed never seek it again our first meal would be our last because hunger would never return So too with sex a single act of intercourse and then a lifetime of lying there basking in the afterglow Thats no way to get lots of genes into the next generation The animals brain should focuson the fact that pleasure will accompany the reaching of a goal than on the fact that the pleasure will dissipate shortly thereafter After all if you focus on youll pursue things like food and sex and social status with unalloyed gusto whereas if you focus on you could start feeling ambivalence You might for example start asking what the point is of so fiercely pursuing pleasure if the pleasure will wear off shortly after you get it and leave you hungering forBefore you know it youll be full of ennui and wishing youd majored in philosophy If you put these three principles of design together you get a pretty plausible explanation of the human predicament as diagnosed by the Buddha Yes as he said pleasure is fleeting and yes this leaves us recurrently dissatisfied And the reason is that pleasure is designed by natural selection to evaporate so that the ensuing dissatisfaction will get us to pursuepleasure Natural selection doesnt want us to be happy after all it just wants us to be productive in its narrow sense of productive And the way to make us productive is to make the anticipation of pleasure very strong but the pleasure itself not very long lasting Scientists can watch this logic play out at the biochemical level by observing dopamine a neurotransmitter that is correlated with pleasure and the anticipation of pleasure In one seminal study they took monkeys and monitored dopamine generating neurons as drops of sweet juice fell onto the monkeys tongues Predictably dopamine was released right after the juice touched the tongue But then the monkeys were trained to expect drops of juice after a light turned on As the trials proceededandof the dopamine came when the light turned on and less and less came after the juice hit the tongue We have no way of knowing for sure what it felt like to be one of those monkeys but it would seem that as time passed there wasin the way of anticipating the pleasure that would come from the sweetness yet less in the way of pleasure actually coming from the sweetnessI To translate this conjecture into everyday human terms If you encounter a new kind of pleasureif say youve somehow gone your whole life without eating a powdered sugar doughnut and somebody hands you one and suggests you try ityoull get a big blast of dopamine after the taste of the doughnut sinks in But later once youre a confirmed powdered sugar doughnut eater the lions share of the dopamine spike comes before you actually bite into the doughnut as youre staring longingly at it the amount that comes after the bite is much less than the amount you got after that first blissful bite into a powdered sugar doughnut The pre bite dopamine blast youre now getting is the promise ofbliss and the post bite drop in dopamine is in a way the breaking of the promiseor at least its a kind of biochemical acknowledgment that there was some overpromising To the extent that you bought the promiseanticipated greater pleasure than would be delivered by the consumption itselfyou have been if not deluded in the strong sense of that term at least misled Kind of cruel in a waybut what do you expect from natural selection Its job is to build machines that spread genes and if that means programming some measure of illusion into the machines then illusion there will be Unhelpful Insights So this is one kind of light science can shed on an illusion Call it Darwinian light By looking at things from the point of view of natural selection we see why the illusion would be built into us and we havereason than ever to see that it is an illusion Butand this is the main point of this little digressionthis kind of light is of limited value if your goal is to actually liberate yourself from the illusion Dont believe me Try this simple experiment Reflect on the fact that our lust for doughnuts and other sweet things is a kind of illusionthat the lust implicitly promisesenduring pleasure than will result from succumbing to it while blinding us to the letdown that may ensue As youre reflecting on this fact hold a powdered sugar doughnut six inches from your face Do you feel the lust for it magically weakening Not if youre like me no This is what I discovered after immersing myself in evolutionary psychology knowing the truth about your situation at least in the form that evolutionary psychology provides it doesnt necessarily make your life any better In fact it can actually make it worse Youre still stuck in the natural human cycle of ultimately futile pleasure seekingwhat psychologists sometimes call the hedonic treadmillbut now you have new reason to see the absurdity of it In other words now you see that its a treadmill a treadmill specifically designed to keep you running often without really getting anywhereyet you keep running And powdered sugar doughnuts are just the tip of the iceberg I mean the truth is its not all that uncomfortable to be aware of the Darwinian logic behind your lack of dietary self discipline In fact you may find in this logic a comforting excuse its hard to fight Mother Nature right But evolutionary psychology also made meaware of how illusion shapes other kinds of behavior such as the way I treat other people and the way I in various senses treat myself In these realms Darwinian self consciousness was sometimes very uncomfortable Yongey Mingyur Rinpoche a meditation teacher in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition has said Ultimately happiness comes down to choosing between the discomfort of becoming aware of your mental afflictions and the discomfort of being ruled by them What he meant is that if you want to liberate yourself from the parts of the mind that keep you from realizing true happiness you have to first become aware of them which can be unpleasant Okay fine thats a form of painful self consciousness that would be worthwhilethe kind that leads ultimately to deep happiness But the kind I got from evolutionary psychology was the worst of both worlds the painful self consciousness without the deep happiness I.

Why Buddhism is True: The Science and Philosophy of is True: eBook ↠ En tant u’auteur connu certains de ses livres fascinent les lecteurs comme dans le livre Why Buddhism is True The Science and Philosophy of Meditation and Enlightenment English Edition ui est l’un des lecteurs les plus recherchés Robert Wright auteurs dans Buddhism is True: The Science PDF or le monde.

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